Grading & Excavation
Excavation is a technique used to remove material from the earth, which may include sediment or soil and other plastics or unwanted materials. Excavation shall offer good working space and clearances for easy work to be done therein and also for removal and installation of concrete forms. In no matter where excavations are to take place, all areas shall be level and there shall be no undercut for digging. In addition to these features, all aspects shall be taken into consideration during excavation such as; the type of the land, the amount of material to be removed, and the kind of machinery to be used.
Excavation and levels play a vital role in many construction techniques. When an area is to be cleared and/or redesigned and when it needs to level out, both the techniques need to be employed. While one is performing one of the techniques, the other one must also be going on. For example, when performing rock excavation, the process should not only end there but it should also stop right before any leveling out takes place. It is important that the surface be leveled out. If this is not done then it will result in a slope that will damage the surrounding soil.
In relation to leveling out, another very important thing to consider is that if you are excavating and leveling out a hillside for an extension of a road or a driveway, then the slope should be taken into account. This is because if the slope is too steep then it will compromise the function and purpose of the road or driveway. This can seriously compromise safety as well and the lives of people who use the road or driveway on a daily basis. Therefore, the slope of the land where the road or driveway will be built need to be taken into consideration. The slope of the land needs to be made level enough so that a road can be built without causing problems during traffic congestion on it.
Once all the grading has been performed and the surface has been leveled out, the next step involves "water shallower than" trenches. In the case of excavation, the soil that is excavated needs to be moved and then levelled so that the excavated areas can be efficiently utilized. After the excavation is complete, the soil in the excavated areas is pumped with water that has been brought to the right depth. The water shall be directed in such a way that it goes down deep enough to protect the adjacent property from eroding. The water shall also be pumped to the sides of the excavated areas so that water shall run off the sides and into a trench, after which the soil is compacted and levelled.
Dumping and lading involve the removal of dirt and debris from the excavation site. These are typically done while Excavating is in progress. A dump truck is used to dump the dirt and debris when it reaches the end of the excavation. When lading is required, it is the job of the contractor to haul away the debris from the excavation site and into a dump truck. This is generally done using a forklift.
As the above procedures clearly demonstrate, each step in the process is a complicated one. To make the task easier, most contractors require the services of a contractor engineer who has the necessary training for these tasks. This engineer will design and draw all the required blueprints. After these drawings have been drawn up by the contractor, they are submitted to the responsible authority for approval. The contractor shall ensure that the engineer presents these drawings as well as all other related supporting documents to the relevant authority. Any discrepancies in the blueprints or in the supporting documents may result in delays in the project.